# Contributed Talks 1b: Theory Talks

contributed

Mon, 14 Aug
, 14:00 - 15:20

- Quantum Advantage from One-Way FunctionsTomoyuki Morimae (Kyoto University); Takashi Yamakawa (NTT Social Informatics Laboratories)[Abstract]
**Abstract:**We demonstrate quantum advantage with several basic assumptions, specifically based on only the existence of OWFs. We introduce inefficient-verifier proofs of quantumness (IV-PoQ), and construct it from classical bit commitments. IV-PoQ is an interactive protocol between a verifier and a quantum prover consisting of two phases. In the first phase, the verifier is probabilistic polynomial-time, and it interacts with the prover. In the second phase, the verifier becomes inefficient, and makes its decision based on the transcript of the first phase. If the prover is honest, the inefficient verifier accepts with high probability, but any classical malicious prover only has a small probability of being accepted by the inefficient verifier. Our construction demonstrates the following results: (1)If one-way functions exist, then IV-PoQ exist. (2)If distributional collision-resistant hash functions exist (which exist if hard-on-average problems in SZK exist), then constant-round IV-PoQ exist. We also demonstrate quantum advantage based on worst-case-hard assumptions. We define auxiliary-input IV-PoQ (AI-IV-PoQ) that only require that for any malicious prover, there exist infinitely many auxiliary inputs under which the prover cannot cheat. We construct AI-IV-PoQ from an auxiliary-input version of commitments in a similar way, showing that (1)If auxiliary-input one-way functions exist (which exist if CZK⊈BPP), then AI-IV-PoQ exist. (2)If auxiliary-input collision-resistant hash functions exist (which is equivalent to PWPP⊈FBPP) or SZK⊈BPP, then constant-round AI-IV-PoQ exist. - Obfuscation of Pseudo-Deterministic Quantum CircuitsJames Bartusek (UC Berkeley); Fuyuki Kitagawa (NTT Social Informatics Laboratories); Ryo Nishimaki (NTT Social Informatics Laboratories); Takashi Yamakawa (NTT Social Informatics Laboratories)[Abstract]
**Abstract:**We show how to obfuscate pseudo-deterministic quantum circuits, assuming the quantum hardness of learning with errors (QLWE) and post-quantum virtual black-box (VBB) obfuscation for classical circuits. Given the classical description of a quantum circuit $Q$, our obfuscator outputs a quantum state $\ket{\widetilde{Q}}$ that can be used to evaluate $Q$ repeatedly on arbitrary inputs. Instantiating the VBB obfuscator for classical circuits with any candidate post-quantum indistinguishability obfuscator gives us the first candidate construction of indistinguishability obfuscation for all polynomial-size pseudo-deterministic quantum circuits. In particular, our scheme is the first candidate obfuscator for a class of circuits that is powerful enough to implement Shor's algorithm (SICOMP 1997). Our approach follows Bartusek and Malavolta (ITCS 2022), who obfuscate \emph{null} quantum circuits by obfuscating the verifier of an appropriate classical verification of quantum computation (CVQC) scheme. We go beyond null circuits by constructing a publicly-verifiable CVQC scheme for quantum \emph{partitioning} circuits, which can be used to verify the evaluation procedure of Mahadev's quantum fully-homomorphic encryption scheme (FOCS 2018). We achieve this by upgrading the one-time secure scheme of Bartusek (TCC 2021) to a fully reusable scheme, via a publicly-decodable \emph{Pauli functional commitment}, which we formally define and construct in this work. This commitment scheme, which satisfies a notion of binding against committers that can access the receiver's standard and Hadamard basis decoding functionalities, is constructed by building on techniques of Amos, Georgiou, Kiayias, and Zhandry (STOC 2020) introduced in the context of equivocal but collision-resistant hash functions. - Secure Computation with Shared EPR Pair (Or: How to Teleport in Zero-Knowledge)James Bartusek (UC Berkeley); Dakshita Khurana (UIUC); Akshayaram Srinivasan (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research)[Abstract]
**Abstract:**Can a sender non-interactively transmit one of two strings to a receiver without knowing which string was received? Does there exist minimally-interactive secure multiparty computation that only makes (black-box) use of symmetric-key primitives? We provide affirmative answers to these questions in a model where parties have access to shared EPR pairs, thus demonstrating the cryptographic power of this resource. - First, we construct a one-shot (i.e., single message) string oblivious transfer (OT) protocol with random receiver bit in the shared EPR pairs model, assuming the (sub-exponential) hardness of LWE. Building on this, we show that {\em secure teleportation through quantum channels} is possible. Specifically, given the description of any quantum operation $Q$, a sender with (quantum) input $\rho$ can send a single classical message that securely transmits $Q(\rho)$ to a receiver. That is, we realize an ideal quantum channel that takes input $\rho$ from the sender and provably delivers $Q(\rho)$ to the receiver without revealing any other information. This immediately gives a number of applications in the shared EPR pairs model: (1) non-interactive secure computation of unidirectional \emph{classical} randomized functionalities, (2) NIZK for QMA from standard (sub-exponential) hardness assumptions, and (3) a non-interactive \emph{zero-knowledge} state synthesis protocol. - Next, we construct a two-round (round-optimal) secure multiparty computation protocol for classical functionalities in the shared EPR pairs model that is \emph{unconditionally-secure} in the (quantum-accessible) random oracle model. Classically, both of these results cannot be obtained without some form of correlated randomness shared between the parties, and the only known approach is to have a trusted dealer set up random (string) OT correlations. In the quantum world, we show that shared EPR pairs (which are simple and can be deterministically generated) are sufficient. At the heart of our work are novel techniques for making use of entangling operations to generate string OT correlations, and for instantiating the Fiat-Shamir transform using correlation-intractability in the quantum setting. - Cloning Games: A General Framework for Unclonable PrimitivesPrabhanjan Ananth (UCSB); Fatih Kaleoglu (UCSB); Qipeng Liu (Simons Institute)[Abstract]
**Abstract:**The powerful no-cloning principle of quantum mechanics can be leveraged to achieve interesting primitives, referred to as unclonable primitives, that are impossible to achieve classically. In the past few years, we have witnessed a surge of new unclonable primitives. While prior works have mainly focused on establishing feasibility results, another equally important direction, that of understanding the relationship between different unclonable primitives is still in its nascent stages. Moving forward, we need a more systematic study of unclonable primitives. To this end, we introduce a new framework called cloning games. This framework captures many fundamental unclonable primitives such as quantum money, copy-protection, unclonable encryption, single-decryptor encryption, and many more. By reasoning about different types of cloning games, we obtain many interesting implications to unclonable cryptography, including the following: 1) We obtain the first construction of information-theoretically secure single-decryptor encryption in the one-time setting. 2) We construct unclonable encryption in the quantum random oracle model based on BB84 states, improving upon the previous work, which used coset states. Our work also provides a simpler security proof for the previous work. 3) We construct copy-protection for single-bit point functions in the quantum random oracle model based on BB84 states, improving upon the previous work, which used coset states, and additionally, providing a simpler proof. 4) We establish a relationship between different challenge distributions of copy-protection schemes and single-decryptor encryption schemes. 5) Finally, we present a new construction of one-time encryption with certified deletion.